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occurs rather because of the issues that perpetually
arise within a given society; the issues lead to conflict
between the parts of the society; until the conflict
itself brings men to the production of what is really a
new thing. Something emerges to put an end to the
struggle, something which rises above the conflicting
parties ; and in the long run the older parties are super-
seded by the emergence of a new world which may
embrace or transcend both. In other words, thesis
fights antithesis, until there is achieved what is called the
synthesis. If we are disposed to find fault with a formula
of this land, at any rate this particular one is capable of
supreme elasticity, and it checks the unconscious
operation of another one which has done much harm
in the past. Those who do not hold it seem uncon-
sciously to fall into mental habits which on many
occasions have been less satisfactory in their effects.
For a long time the world was content to think of what
we might call a linear development in history—to say
that Protestantism led to toleration and to imagine that
it was characteristic therefore of early Protestantism to
be tolerant. Those who prefer to observe that the
conflict of authorities, the struggle between Protestant
and Catholic, was the thing which led to religious liberty
are saved from some of the dangers of such a view and
have a pattern of the historical process which is at any
rate one stage better. In particular they have greater
elasticity in their conception of history, for they see two
intolerant bodies producing by their conflict something
different from either—something not deducible from
either—and jheir minds are prepared for a kind of